Chemical and biochemical sensing has been increasingly more important in security, environmental, medical and clinical applications [1–4]. However, most current sensing and probing techniques are time-consuming, and require specific expertise and expensive equipment . In addition, many of these techniques require chemical alteration of samples or labeling with fluorescent chromophores prior to detection and analysis . For example, current DNA hybridization detection is mainly based on fluorescent labeling, which introduces unwanted preliminary processing steps and eventually modifies the DNA sample under test, resulting in system inefficiency and low accuracy . Alternative label-free methods, such as mass sensitive , electrochemical , and acoustic wave , have been intensively studied, but no approach has been mature enough to provide performance as competitive as standard fluorescent-based systems. With the emerging advances in device and circuit technologies in the terahertz (THz) regime (0.1 to 10 THz), electromagnetic waves in this frequency range have found many promising applications in noninvasive, label-free and remote sensing for many substances of interest (e.g., chemicals, explosives, drugs) owing to the strong interaction between THz waves and low-energy events (e.g., molecular rotation, torsion, vibration, as well as inter- and intra-molecular hydrogen-bonding) in
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